教程: 创建一个简单的 REST API

在本教程中,我们会解释如何通过不同的HTTP访问方法来创建一个简单的RESTful风格的接口类型的应用程序:

  • GET 要检索和搜索数据
  • POST,以添加数据
  • PUT 更新的数据
  • DELETE 来删除数据

定义的 API

该 API 包括以下方法:

方法 URL 操作
GET /api/robots 检索所有的机器人
GET /api/robots/search/Astro 在他们的名字与 'Astro' 机器人搜索
GET /api/robots/2 检索基于主键机器人
POST /api/robots 添加一个新的机器人
PUT /api/robots/2 Updates robots based on primary key
DELETE /api/robots/2 删除基于主键机器人

创建应用程序

由于应用程序需求简单,我们不会实现完整的MVC环境来开发它。 在这种情况下,我们使用micro application 足以满足需求。

以下的文件结构足够了:

my-rest-api/
    models/
        Robots.php
    index.php
    .htaccess

First, we need a .htaccess file that contains all the rules to rewrite the request URIs to the index.php file (application entry-point):

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteRule ^((?s).*)$ index.php?_url=/$1 [QSA,L]
</IfModule>

The bulk of our code will be placed in index.php. The file is created as follows:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Micro;

$app = new Micro();

// 在这定义路由

$app->handle();

现在根据上面的需求来创建路由:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Micro;

$app = new Micro();

// Retrieves all robots
$app->get(
    '/api/robots',
    function () {
        // Operation to fetch all the robots
    }
);

// Searches for robots with $name in their name
$app->get(
    '/api/robots/search/{name}',
    function ($name) {
        // Operation to fetch robot with name $name
    }
);

// Retrieves robots based on primary key
$app->get(
    '/api/robots/{id:[0-9]+}',
    function ($id) {
        // Operation to fetch robot with id $id
    }
);

// Adds a new robot
$app->post(
    '/api/robots',
    function () {
        // Operation to create a fresh robot
    }
);

// Updates robots based on primary key
$app->put(
    '/api/robots/{id:[0-9]+}',
    function ($id) {
        // Operation to update a robot with id $id
    }
);

// Deletes robots based on primary key
$app->delete(
    '/api/robots/{id:[0-9]+}',
    function ($id) {
        // Operation to delete the robot with id $id
    }
);

$app->handle();

每个路由使用与HTTP访问方式相同名称的方法进行定义。首选第一个参数为路由匹配参数,接下来的是处理访问。 在这种情况下,处理访问的是一个匿名函数。 以下路由:/api/robots/{id:[0-9]+},以身作则,显式设置id参数必须为数字格式。

当定义的路由与访问与之匹配,应用会执行对应的处理。

创建模型

我们的 API 提供了关于 robots 的信息,这些信息都存储在数据库中。 下列的模型允许我们以面向对象的方式访问对应表。 我们通过使用框架自带的验证器和手动实现了一些简单的验证实现了业务规则。 这样做会让将会保存的数据符合我们的应用要求,将使我们安心。 This model file Robots.php should be placed in your models folder.

<?php

namespace Store\Toys;

use Phalcon\Mvc\Model;
use Phalcon\Validation;
use Phalcon\Validation\Validator\Uniqueness;
use Phalcon\Validation\Validator\InclusionIn;

class Robots extends Model
{
    public function validation()
    {
        $validator = new Validation();

        $validator->add(
            'type',
            new InclusionIn(
                [
                    'domain' => [
                        'Mechanical',
                        'Virtual',
                        'Droid',
                    ]
                ]
            )
        );

        $validator->add(
            'name',
            new Uniqueness(
                [
                    'message' => 'The robot name must be unique',
                ]
            )
        );

        return $this->validate($validator);
    }
}

现在,我们必须设置连接采用这种模式并加载它在我们的应用程序内 [文件: index.php]:

<?php

use Phalcon\Loader;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Micro;
use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;
use Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Mysql as PdoMysql;

// Use Loader() to autoload our model
$loader = new Loader();

$loader->registerNamespaces(
    [
        'Store\Toys' => __DIR__ . '/models/',
    ]
);

$loader->register();

$di = new FactoryDefault();

// Set up the database service
$di->set(
    'db',
    function () {
        return new PdoMysql(
            [
                'host'     => 'localhost',
                'username' => 'asimov',
                'password' => 'zeroth',
                'dbname'   => 'robotics',
            ]
        );
    }
);

// Create and bind the DI to the application
$app = new Micro($di);

检索数据

我们将实施的第一个 handler 是由方法 GET 返回所有可用的机器人。 让我们使用 PHQL 来执行这个简单的查询,以 json 格式返回结果。 [文件: index.php]

<?php

// Retrieves all robots
$app->get(
    '/api/robots',
    function () use ($app) {
        $phql = 'SELECT * FROM Store\Toys\Robots ORDER BY name';

        $robots = $app->modelsManager->executeQuery($phql);

        $data = [];

        foreach ($robots as $robot) {
            $data[] = [
                'id'   => $robot->id,
                'name' => $robot->name,
            ];
        }

        echo json_encode($data);
    }
);

PHQL,使我们能够编写查询使用内部转换为正确的 SQL 语句,具体取决于我们所使用的数据库系统的高层次的、 面向对象的 SQL 方言。 子句 use 匿名函数中允许我们将一些变量从全球传递到本地范围很容易。

搜索名称处理程序看起来就像 [文件: index.php]:

<?php

// Searches for robots with $name in their name
$app->get(
    '/api/robots/search/{name}',
    function ($name) use ($app) {
        $phql = 'SELECT * FROM Store\Toys\Robots WHERE name LIKE :name: ORDER BY name';

        $robots = $app->modelsManager->executeQuery(
            $phql,
            [
                'name' => '%' . $name . '%'
            ]
        );

        $data = [];

        foreach ($robots as $robot) {
            $data[] = [
                'id'   => $robot->id,
                'name' => $robot->name,
            ];
        }

        echo json_encode($data);
    }
);

搜索的字段 id,它是相当类似,在这种情况下,我们也要通知如果机器人被发现或不 [文件: index.php]:

<?php

use Phalcon\Http\Response;

// Retrieves robots based on primary key
$app->get(
    '/api/robots/{id:[0-9]+}',
    function ($id) use ($app) {
        $phql = 'SELECT * FROM Store\Toys\Robots WHERE id = :id:';

        $robot = $app->modelsManager->executeQuery(
            $phql,
            [
                'id' => $id,
            ]
        )->getFirst();

        // Create a response
        $response = new Response();

        if ($robot === false) {
            $response->setJsonContent(
                [
                    'status' => 'NOT-FOUND'
                ]
            );
        } else {
            $response->setJsonContent(
                [
                    'status' => 'FOUND',
                    'data'   => [
                        'id'   => $robot->id,
                        'name' => $robot->name
                    ]
                ]
            );
        }

        return $response;
    }
);

插入数据

以数据为 JSON 字符串插入请求的正文中,我们还用 PHQL 来插入 [文件: index.php]:

<?php

use Phalcon\Http\Response;

// Adds a new robot
$app->post(
    '/api/robots',
    function () use ($app) {
        $robot = $app->request->getJsonRawBody();

        $phql = 'INSERT INTO Store\Toys\Robots (name, type, year) VALUES (:name:, :type:, :year:)';

        $status = $app->modelsManager->executeQuery(
            $phql,
            [
                'name' => $robot->name,
                'type' => $robot->type,
                'year' => $robot->year,
            ]
        );

        // Create a response
        $response = new Response();

        // Check if the insertion was successful
        if ($status->success() === true) {
            // Change the HTTP status
            $response->setStatusCode(201, 'Created');

            $robot->id = $status->getModel()->id;

            $response->setJsonContent(
                [
                    'status' => 'OK',
                    'data'   => $robot,
                ]
            );
        } else {
            // Change the HTTP status
            $response->setStatusCode(409, 'Conflict');

            // Send errors to the client
            $errors = [];

            foreach ($status->getMessages() as $message) {
                $errors[] = $message->getMessage();
            }

            $response->setJsonContent(
                [
                    'status'   => 'ERROR',
                    'messages' => $errors,
                ]
            );
        }

        return $response;
    }
);

更新数据

The data update is similar to insertion. The id passed as parameter indicates what robot must be updated [File: index.php]:

<?php

use Phalcon\Http\Response;

// Updates robots based on primary key
$app->put(
    '/api/robots/{id:[0-9]+}',
    function ($id) use ($app) {
        $robot = $app->request->getJsonRawBody();

        $phql = 'UPDATE Store\Toys\Robots SET name = :name:, type = :type:, year = :year: WHERE id = :id:';

        $status = $app->modelsManager->executeQuery(
            $phql,
            [
                'id'   => $id,
                'name' => $robot->name,
                'type' => $robot->type,
                'year' => $robot->year,
            ]
        );

        // Create a response
        $response = new Response();

        // Check if the insertion was successful
        if ($status->success() === true) {
            $response->setJsonContent(
                [
                    'status' => 'OK'
                ]
            );
        } else {
            // Change the HTTP status
            $response->setStatusCode(409, 'Conflict');

            $errors = [];

            foreach ($status->getMessages() as $message) {
                $errors[] = $message->getMessage();
            }

            $response->setJsonContent(
                [
                    'status'   => 'ERROR',
                    'messages' => $errors,
                ]
            );
        }

        return $response;
    }
);

删除数据

The data delete is similar to update. The id passed as parameter indicates what robot must be deleted [File: index.php]:

<?php

use Phalcon\Http\Response;

// Deletes robots based on primary key
$app->delete(
    '/api/robots/{id:[0-9]+}',
    function ($id) use ($app) {
        $phql = 'DELETE FROM Store\Toys\Robots WHERE id = :id:';

        $status = $app->modelsManager->executeQuery(
            $phql,
            [
                'id' => $id,
            ]
        );

        // Create a response
        $response = new Response();

        if ($status->success() === true) {
            $response->setJsonContent(
                [
                    'status' => 'OK'
                ]
            );
        } else {
            // Change the HTTP status
            $response->setStatusCode(409, 'Conflict');

            $errors = [];

            foreach ($status->getMessages() as $message) {
                $errors[] = $message->getMessage();
            }

            $response->setJsonContent(
                [
                    'status'   => 'ERROR',
                    'messages' => $errors,
                ]
            );
        }

        return $response;
    }
);

Creating database

Now we will create database for our application. Run SQL queries as follows:

CREATE DATABASE `robotics`;
CREATE TABLE `robotics`.`robots` (
 `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
 `name` varchar(200) COLLATE utf8_bin NOT NULL,
 `type` varchar(200) COLLATE utf8_bin NOT NULL,
 `year` smallint(2) unsigned NOT NULL,
 PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
)

测试我们的应用程序

使用 curl 我们会在我们的应用程序验证其正确运行中测试每条路线。

获取所有机器人:

curl -i -X GET http://localhost/my-rest-api/api/robots

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 07:05:13 GMT
Server: Apache/2.2.22 (Unix) DAV/2
Content-Length: 117
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

[{"id":"1","name":"Robotina"},{"id":"2","name":"Astro Boy"},{"id":"3","name":"Terminator"}]

按其名称搜索机器人:

curl -i -X GET http://localhost/my-rest-api/api/robots/search/Astro

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 07:09:23 GMT
Server: Apache/2.2.22 (Unix) DAV/2
Content-Length: 31
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

[{"id":"2","name":"Astro Boy"}]

通过其 id 来获得一个机器人:

curl -i -X GET http://localhost/my-rest-api/api/robots/3

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 07:12:18 GMT
Server: Apache/2.2.22 (Unix) DAV/2
Content-Length: 56
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

{"status":"FOUND","data":{"id":"3","name":"Terminator"}}

插入一个新的机器人:

curl -i -X POST -d '{"name":"C-3PO","type":"Droid","year":1977}' http://localhost/my-rest-api/api/robots

HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Date: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 07:15:09 GMT
Server: Apache/2.2.22 (Unix) DAV/2
Content-Length: 75
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

{"status":"OK","data":{"name":"C-3PO","type":"Droid","year":1977,"id":"4"}}

尝试插入新机器人与现有的机器人的名称:

curl -i -X POST -d '{"name":"C-3PO","type":"Droid","year":1977}' http://localhost/my-rest-api/api/robots

HTTP/1.1 409 Conflict
Date: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 07:18:28 GMT
Server: Apache/2.2.22 (Unix) DAV/2
Content-Length: 63
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

{"status":"ERROR","messages":["The robot name must be unique"]}

或更新一个机器人与未知的类型:

curl -i -X PUT -d '{"name":"ASIMO","type":"humanoid","year":2000}'
    http://localhost/my-rest-api/api/robots/4

HTTP/1.1 409 Conflict
Date: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 08:48:01 GMT
Server: Apache/2.2.22 (Unix) DAV/2
Content-Length: 104
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

{"status":"ERROR","messages":["Value of field 'type' must be part of
    list: Droid, Mechanical, Virtual"]}

最后,删除一个机器人:

curl -i -X DELETE http://localhost/my-rest-api/api/robots/1

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Tue, 21 Jul 2015 08:49:29 GMT
Server: Apache/2.2.22 (Unix) DAV/2
Content-Length: 15
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

{"status":"OK"}

结论

正如我们所看到的开发 基于 Rest API 与Phalcon很容易使用 微应用程序PHQL